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Monday, July 28, 2014

Protect Yourself

There are a few things to protect yourself and your family.
Don't mess around with this advice; remember, Ebola has no cure!

Wash Your Hands with Soap

Do this a lot. You can also use a good hand sanitizer. Avoid unnecessary contact!

No Bush Meat & Suya

Bush meat may be carrying the virus. Also avoid suya. Better to restrict yourself to food you prepared yourself.

Disinfect Your Surroundings

The virus cannot survive disinfectants, heat, direct sunlight, detergents and soaps. Clean up!

Fumigate If you Have Pests

Rodents can be carriers of Ebola. Fumigate your environment & dispose of the carcasses properly!

Don't Touch Carcasses

Dead bodies can still transmit Ebola. Don't touch them without protective gear or avoid them altogether.

Protect Yourself

Use protective gear if you must care or go near someone you suspect has Ebola.

Report

Report any suspicious symptoms in yourself or anyone else IMMEDIATELY you notice them. Don't delay!!

Educate Everyone

Tell your neighbours, colleagues and domestic staff. You're safer when everyone is educated about Ebola.
www.ebolafacts.com

Saturday, July 5, 2014



Walker and the Restitution of Two Benin Bronzes.  
By Peju Layiwola  


June 20, 2014 would go down in history as a memorable day for the people of Benin and advocates for the return of looted Benin artefacts taken during the infamous 1897 British expedition to Benin. About 4,000 objects were reportedly stolen from Benin, by the British while some were destroyed during the imbroglio that occurred in 1897. The King of Benin, Oba Ovoranmwen was exiled to Calabar where he later died in 1914.  This important return comes on the centennial commemoration of his passing. 

 I arrived the Benin Palace at about 10am, two hours before the presentation ceremony was to begin on that fateful day. As I alighted from the car, I could hear Christian choruses blaring from the direction of the harem. It was difficult to reconcile the choruses and the shrines I just saw as I came onto the palace grounds.  There was a huge tree tied with red and white cloth with chalk configurations at the entrance to the palace. I later found out that the music was emanating from a music shop located along right behind the palace.  I had wondered- in a postmodern and postcolonial society, there could be many possibilities.  The possibility that came to my mind was stretching the imagination too far.  As is usual of large events, the palace grounds were filled with several canopies and chairs.  From the quality of chairs under a particular canopy, it was obvious where the distinguished visitors were to sit.  From afar, Segun Alile, a popular Edo musician and his band were setting up for the day. Cars were beginning to arrive. All of a sudden a black jeep arrived with armed policemen literally flying out from the doors. The car stopped close to the shelter under which the several wall plaques and cement statuary made by an Edo artist, Ovia Idah were mounted.  Very gently, a tall slim ‘Oyinbo’ man, suave and impeccably dressed in a suit alighted from the car accompanied by two other men. This was the man everyone had been waiting to see in Benin, Dr Adrian Mark Walker. 

In the past two weeks television stations had been announcing the event of the return.  Posters of the event were pasted in front of the palace and around the central part of the city. The last time such an event had occurred in Benin was seventy eight years ago when the British returned the regalia of Oba Ovoranmwen to Oba Akenzua II in 1936.  There were armed police men everywhere- understandably so.  Two priceless works of art were about to be unveiled to the pubic.  It was difficult to tell if anyone had a different plan.  It was safer to have these fierce looking officers around and about to scare away kidnappers or thieves in a city where the duo gangsters, Lawrence Anini and Osunbor had held sway in the mid 1980s.

History was about to be made again with the return of two looted Benin bronze works looted.  Amidst fanfare and emotionally-laden speeches by government functionaries, Edo personalities, the Oba and members of the Benin royal family the guest was heartily welcomed Dr Adrian Mark Walker is a grandson of Captain Herbert Sutherland Walker.  His grandfather was not primarily a fighter but was a Special Forces agent, otherwise known as a spy attached to the British Expeditionary forces that conquered Benin. On seeing the mammoth crowd that had gathered in the Benin palace he remarked to the King ‘I would like to stress how very honoured I feel to be invited here by you and how very humbled I am by the warmth and enthusiasm that my colleagues and I have been given.  It makes me feel that this is a very special occasion and not just for me… I was very aware of the importance of this myself but I had no idea that it would cause so much excitement.  Seeing all these proves to me that this is the right thing to do’.  He presented the king with two bronze works – a bird (Ahianmwen Oro) and a bell (Egogo) looted by his grandfather.  The works had been in the possession of the Walker family since 1897. He also donated a copy of Captain Walker’s war dairy to the king. I would be discussing Adrian Mark Walker’s return in the context of contemporary Benin history as it relates to the restitution of looted Benin artifacts objects.  Restitution being the willful return of artifacts that have been looted, or taken by force and had been in possession of an institution,  museum or  Individual to the rightful owners. 



 Adrian Mark Walker is the son of Richard Sutherland Walker. Captain Walker, his grandfather, was a specialist in discovering potential enemy strains and had spent many years in East Africa.  After the Benin expedition he went off to Ghana to continue with his profession as a spy. As a young boy, Captain Walker was born and had lived in India for thirty-five years.  This perhaps gave him the opportunity of living with people of different classes and appreciating them for whom they were.  His own father had been a surgeon attached to the Indian army. On his return from his sojourn in Africa, Captain Walker rose to the rank of a Lieutenant Colonel and later became the Chief Constable of Worcestershire until he retired in 1902.  He died in 1934 and was buried in a churchyard at Powick, Worcestershire, UK. 



Adrian Mark Walker is a retired medical doctor.  He spent a sizeable part of his childhood in South Africa, having done his primary education in Johannesburg. After the Sharpeville Massacre, he moved over to England where he studied at Leighton Park, Quaker School in reading and Cambridge University. He later studied medicine at the Middlesex Hospital in London after obtaining a degree in natural sciences from Cambridge.  Inspired by the earlier donation of a carved Benin 6 ft tusk by his grandmother, Josephine Walker, to the Jos museum, in 1957, Mark Walker believes that the two works be returned to Benin where they are likely to be of the greatest cultural and historical significance.

He narrates a long personal history of how he came to return the Benin objects.

‘These objects have come on a rather long journey.  These objects only came into my formal possession recently with the death of my mother.  I remember seeing them in my grandmother’s house fifty-five years ago and really coveting them.  I thought I would really be proud to own such beautiful objects.  However, as soon as they came into my possession, I realized that if they meant a lot to me because of their connection with my grandfather, they must mean a lot more to the people of the place from where they have come.  Before my mother died I took the precaution of asking her if I could take care of them… I knew that she would not consent to my returning them at that stage because she is one from a very materialist generation.  My children on the other hand had no such materialist ambition.  I was very pleased to be in possession of them because they reminded me of my grandparents.  But when I heard from my children that they were not interested in the stuff (Objects), I knew that I had to do something to protect their future’.
I have quoted Walker in extenso to understand and appreciate the commitment Walker has to correct the ills of the past.  Paraphrasing would lose the strength of his convictions. It becomes obvious that his urge to make peace overrode his desire to keep the Benin objects for their artistry and links to his family ties.  Furthermore,  Mark is convinced that neither his children nor himself would be judged by posterity since he had done the right thing by coming to Benin to return works that were stolen one hundred and seventeen years ago.  He remarked ‘I will not be condemned as the grandson of a racist’. He went an extra mile to prove this by extracting excerpts from his grandfather’s diary.  Walker remarked that his grandfather was far ahead of his time in the civil manner he referred to the Benin natives. Although accounts by ‘white men’ at that time used derogatory words in describing the natives, he on the contrary, had described them as gentlemen as much as his own country men and women and showed them milk of human kindness particularly natives at his mercy.  In welcoming Mark Walker to Benin, the Iyase of Benin, Chief Igbe, remarked that by this kind gesture, he has become a friend of the city and was welcome anytime. More importantly, he added that he was free of age-long curses the Edo people had placed on the looters.  The Oba remarked: ‘Walker would now have peace having done what is expected of him’.


The unending debates over Benin looted treasures have thrown up obnoxious theories emanating from the west. Kwame Opoku, a lawyer, known as one of the most vocal advocates for the return of stolen objects to countries of origin has consistently responded to some of these theories.  The proponents of a shared and universal heritage, acquiesce to the keeping of illegally acquired works in foreign so-called ‘encyclopedic’ or ‘universal’ museums.  Their claim is to keep the art of the world in trust for mankind- a view popular amongst directors and curators of these universal museums.  It is important to note that these Universal museums are all located in the Western world. Benson Osadolor, a History lecturer at the University of Benin describes them as the  ‘Museums of Loot’ following the ‘Declaration on the Importance and Value of Universal Museums’ signed in 2002.   This concept has become very popular amongst curators of western museums and help propagate and legitimize the continued keeping of looted works. To better appreciate the brazenness of this argument, it is important to quote excerpts from the declaration.

‘Whether (acquired) by purchase, gift ,or partage- (the artifacts)have become pat of the museums that have cared for them, and by extension part of the heritage of the nations which house them’

In other words, since the Benin objects were first looted and then sold to collectors, the buyers of these looted objects now have the right to own them because they have so ‘graciously’ cared for them.  Being able to pay for them gives a buyer of stolen objects the right to own them.  Additionally, the nations who have acquired these objects or house buyers or museums with illegally acquired objects are now by this declaration free to assimilate the objects as part of their national heritage.  It has been noted that almost all the signatory museums to this preposterous declaration belong to the nation states that signed the final document of the 1884/1885 Berlin Africa Conference.  On the other hand, there are those who argue for works to be retained within their national jurisdictions. They are often referred to as nationalist retentionists. The British government has been constantly reminded of its need to return looted objects.  Nigeria and Greece have been constistently demanding for the return of their objects housed in the British Museum. The Greek’s demand for the Elgin marbles has gone on for a long time, the same way the Benin monarchy have been on the case for the return of their heirloom.

In support of the nationalist retentionist’s position,  Walker clearly states
‘I believe the international community is guilty of double standards with regards to such artifacts.  When for example at the end of Second World War came, looted works of art where discovered in Nazi home, we went through a great deal of trouble to return them to the families from which they had come. I cannot understand what the difference is between Nazi and looted objects of Benin… If you ask the British Museum they would say ‘well, they are only custodians’.  If you ask (British) politicians they say ‘it is the business of the British Museum’. So, we go round in a circle. We need to persuade not just the British public, but the international community that it is unethical and immoral to be holding on to items which were not legally acquired.  To this end I think, this event is important particularly if it achieves publicity not just here but also in Britain. I am confident that within another generation we should see a lot more of these objects returned to Benin. 

While this return has come out of a private collection in the UK, it is pertinent to add that several thousands of looted Benin works still remain in public museums in the UK, Germany and the US.  Soon after the invasion of Benin, the works were first collected in the courtyard of the king from where they were later shipped to Britain.   On arrival in London, the Admiralty auctioned them.  Later in 1897, the British Museum exhibited well over three hundred bronze plaques loaned from the Foreign Office. Charles Read the curator of the British Museum at the time facilitated the auction of the pieces, which got into several British, and other foreign private and public collections.   Today, a large number of looted Benin works can be seen in the galleries of the British Museum as well as many other museums across Europe and America.   Ever since, there has been no return made to Nigeria from the British Museum despite several requests from Nigeria for the objects in their kitty.  In 1977, the British government turned down the request made by the Nigerian Government to loan the popular Queen Idia mask stolen from the bedchamber of the king which later became the symbol of the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC ‘77) in Lagos. This mask along with four other similar pectoral masks can be found in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, The Metropolitan and Seattle  pMuseums in the US and the most popular one at the British Museum. The fifth mask in a private collection surfaced at the Sotheby auction in 2010.  After the 1977, request came another, this time on the occasion of the 30th anniversary commemoration of FESTAC.  In February, 2007 Professor Tunde Babawale, director of the Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization (CBAAC) made a fresh request to the British Museum for the mask.  The director of the British Museum, Neil Mcgregor, glossed over his request replying that the British Museum had been invited by the NCMM to offer assistance and advice on the development of the Lagos Museum.  Previously, Bernie Grant MP, British House of Commons made a request to the Director Art Gallery and Museums in Glassgow in 1897. As a follow up to this letter, Emmaneul Arinze, Chairman West African Museums also wrote letters of request for Benin objects. By 2000, Prince Edun Akenzua, the Enogie (Duke) of Obazuwa and brother of the Oba (king) of Benin gave testimony before the British House of Commons. In 2008, I hand delivered a letter from Prince Edun Akenzua to the Art Institute of Chicago on the same request. In all of these cases, there has been no response to mails. The lack of response has however not dissuaded people from reacting to this historical injustice. Fresh requests and responses occur as often as the issues of the looted artifacts resurface. One of such was the sale of Benin artifacts by Sotheby in 2001. A 16th century Benin ‘Oba’ mask was to be auctioned for about 4.5 million pounds sterling.  The consignee was a descendant of Lieutenant Colonel Sir Henry Gallwey, Deputy Commissioner and Vice Consul in the Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1891 who took part in the infamous British Expedition. Protests organized by civil society groups and Nigerian intellectuals against this sale spread from the streets of London to social network sites.  The consignee was forced to pull down the work from the auction. It is no longer business as usual to profiteer from the loot - a loot which was forcibly removed during a very bloody contest between British soldiers and Benin defenders. At another occasion, Nigerians living in Chicago protested in 2007 when news came that the Art Institute was selected as a venue of the travelling exhibition of Benin art titled Benin Kings and Rituals : Court Art from Nigeria.  In 2013, the controversial donation of 32 Benin objects by the Lehman Brothers to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, USA and the Museum’s search for legitimacy from the Benin Royal family caused another stir.

 It is important to mention here that the British expeditionary soldiers had a field day picking some of these Benin objects for themselves as mementoes.  Captain Egerton took for himself about half a dozen objects. Admiral Harry Rawson, the commander of the expedition and Sir Ralph Moor, the Consul General of the Niger Coast protectorate, sent to Queen Victoria a pair of exquisitely carved leopards and well as two carved ivory tusks as gifts from the troupe.  It was in this context that Captain Walker acquired his own pieces. While descendants of Sir Henry Gallwey have resorted to making money from the loot of their grandfather, Walker has decided to return to the original owners what his father himself described as ’loot’ in at least three entries in his diary.  This act of honour is the reason Edo people came out in large numbers to show immense gratitude to a man who has followed the path of nobility and conscience.  He has resisted the temptation of profiteering from works that were taken forcibly from a people who defended their kingdom with their lives. One can only hope that other individuals and descendants of British soldiers and particularly, foreign museums and institutions keeping Benin works return them and in good time too.


Peju Layiwola is Associate Professor of Art History and currently Head of Department of Creative Arts, University of Lagos

Sunday, February 23, 2014

For the records: Full text of Sanusi Lamido Sanusi`s suspension letter

That Kano-born financial expert, Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi was suspended from office as Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria on Thursday February 20, 2014, is no longer news.
However, the development has continued to generate reactions both within and outside the country, and has become a topic that would be discussed for a very long time to come.
For the record, DailyPost hereby reproduce the suspension letter through which the Nigerian government communicated its decision to Mallam Sanusi.
Reference:
Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi Governor,
Central Bank of Nigeria, Abuja.
SUSPENSION FROM OFFICE
1. Following the Report of the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria on the Audited Financial Statements of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) for the year ended 31st December 2012, and other related issues, I write to convey to you His Excellency, Mr. President’s decision that you be suspended from office as Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria with effect from Thursday 20th February 2014.
2. The decision is predicated on the loss of confidence in your ability to lead the Apex Bank towards the achievement of its statutory mandate. Of particular concern is the fact that, under your watch, the bank has carried out its functions in a manner characterised by disregard for due process and accountability.
3. This is exemplified by various acts of financial recklessness and unprofessional conduct which are inconsistent with the administration’s vision of a Central Bank propelled by the core values of focused economic management, prudence, transparency and financial discipline.
4. The particulars of the infractions are highlighted below:
5. Persistent Refusal and/or Negligence to comply with the Public Procurement Act in the Procurement Practices of the Central Bank of Nigeria
(a) By virtue of Section 15(1) (a) of the Public Procurement Act, the provisions of the Act are expected to apply to all ‘procurement of goods, works and services carried out by the Federal Government of Nigeria and all procurement entities.’ The definition clearly includes the Central Bank of Nigeria.
(b) It is however regrettable the Central Bank of Nigeria under your leadership, has refused and/or neglected to comply with the provisions of the Public Procurement (PPA). You will recall that one of the primary reasons for the enactment of the PPA was the need to promote transparency, competitiveness, cost effectiveness and professionalism in the public sector procurement system.
(c) Available information indicates the Central Bank has over the years engaged in procurement of goods, works and services with billions of naira each year without complying with the express provisions of the PPA.
(d) By deliberately refusing to be bound by the Provisions of the Act, the CBN has not only decided to act in an unlawful manner, but also persisted in promoting a governance regime characterised by financial recklessness, waste and impunity, as demonstrated by the contents of the 2012 Financial Statements.
6. No responsible government will tolerate this blatant disregard for its laws and procedures by any person or institution. The Central Bank, by its unique position, ought to show good example and be the leading light in the promotion of the culture of observance of due process.
7. Unlawful Expenditure by the Central Bank of Nigeria on ‘Intervention Projects’ across the country,
(a) The unacceptable level of financial recklessness displayed by the leadership of the Central Bank of Nigeria is typified by the execution of ‘Intervention Projects’ across the country. From available information, the Bank has either executed or is currently executing about 63 (sixty-three) such projects across the country. Please find attached hereto as Annexure I, a letter dated January 7th, 2014 from the CBN confirming the list of projects across the country to which the CBN has committed N163 Billion (One Hundred and Sixty Billion Naira).
(b) It is inexcusable and patently unlawful for any agency of Government to deploy huge sums of money as the CBN has done in this case, without appropriation and outside the CBN’s statutory mandate. It is trite that the expenditure of public funds by any arm of government must be based on clear legal mandates, prudent costing and overriding national interest.
(c) Cognisant of the attendant negative consequence of the CBN’s action, a review of the Central Bank (Establishment) Act 2007 does not disclose any legal basis for the huge expenditure on intervention projects in default of appropriation.
8. Financial Infractions and Acts of Financial Recklessness Committed by the Central Bank as reflected in its Audited Financial Statements for 2012.
(a) Pursuant to Section 50 of the CBN Act 2007, a copy of the Audited Financial Statement of the Central Bank for the year ended 31st December 2012 was sent to Mr. President (Please, find a copy attached hereto as Annexure II). Based on the issues raised in the financial statement, a response was requested from Sanusi to enable a proper appreciation of the nation’s economic outlook. (Please, find attached a copy of the letter dated 4th May, 2013 as Annexure III).
(b) Your response to this query (Annexure IV) was further referred to the Financial Reporting Council by a letter of 12th April, 2013, for review (Annexure V).
The review of the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria, rather than allay the fears of Government, further confirmed concern about the untidy manner in which you have conducted the operations of the CBN (Annexure VI).
9. Some of the salient observations arising from the review are highlighted below:
(a) In a most ironical manner, it has become obvious that the CBN is not able to prepare its financial statements using applicable International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) whereas Deposit Money Banks that the CBN is supervising have complied with this national requirement since 2012. Undoubtedly, this laxity on the part of our apex bank, apart from calling to question its capacity for proper corporate governance, is capable of sending wrong signals to both domestic and international investors on the state of the Nigerian economy.
(b) The provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by the CBN and other Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) on Banking Resolution Sinking Fund have been breached in a material manner. For example, a Board of Trustees (BOT) to manage the Fund has not been constituted since 2010 when it was established. The CBN has however continued to utilise the Fund for certain operations without the approval of the said BOT.
(c) Contrary to Section 34(b) of the CBN Act 2007 which provides that the CBN shall not, except as provided in Section 31 of the Act, inter alia, purchase the shares of any corporation or company, unless an entity set up by the approval of the authority of the Federal Government, CBN in 2010, acquired 7% shares of International Islamic Liquidity Management Corporation of Malaysia to the tune of N0.743 Billion. This transaction was neither brought to Mr. President’s attention nor was a Board approval obtained before it was entered into.
(d) The CBN has failed or refused to implement the provisions of the Personal Income Tax (Amendment) Act 2007. Accordingly the Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE) deductions of its staff are still being computed in accordance with the defunct Personal Income Tax Act 2004, thus effectively assisting its staff to evade tax, despite the generous wage package in the CBN, relative to other sectors of the economy.
(e) The CBN had an additional brought forward to General Reserve Fund of N16.031 Billion in 2012 but proceeded on a voyage of indefensible expenses in 2012 characterised by inexplicable increases in some heads of expenditure during the year. Examples include:
(i) The bank spent N3.086 Billion ‘promotional activities’ in 2012 (up from N1.084 Billion in 2011). The bank spent this sum even when it is not in competition with any other institution in Nigeria;
(ii) The CBN claimed to have expended N20.202 Billion on ‘Legal and Professional Fees’ in 2011, beyond all reasonable standards of prudence and accountability;(iii) Between expenses on ‘Private Guards’ and ‘Lunch for Policemen’, the CBN claimed to have spent N1.257 Billion in 2012;
(iv) While Section 6(3) (c) of the CBN Act 2007 provides that the Board of the CBN is to make recommendations to Mr. President on the rate of remuneration to Auditors, the Bank has consistently observed this provision in the breach and even went to the extent of changing one of its Joint External Auditors without notifying the office of the President.
(f) In the explanations offered by the CBN pursuant to Presidential directives, it offered a breakdown of ‘Currency Issue Expenses’ for 2011 and 2012. Interestingly, it claimed to have paid a total of N38.233 Billion to the Nigerian Security Printing and Minting Company Limited (NSPMC) in 2011 for Printing of Banknotes’. Paradoxically however, in the same 2011, NSPMC reported a total turnover of N29.370 Billion for all its transaction with all clients (including the CBN)
(g) It is significant to note that the external audit revealed balances of sundry foreign currencies without physical stock of foreign currencies in the CBN Head Office.
10. Questionable write-off of N40 billion naira loans of bank
You may wish to specifically not Annexure VII which highlights a number of transactions and breaches, which include the write-off of loans totalling N40 billion
11. The above issues are only few of the infractions highlighted by the review and which point to the gross incompetence and recklessness which characterised the operations of the CBN in the period under review.
12. In light of the foregoing, and pursuant to the provisions of Section 7 (2) (a), Section 8 (1) (k), Section 62 (1) (c) and 62 (3) of Financial Reporting council of Nigeria Act, a copy of this letter is being forwarded to the Executive Secretary of the Council for his notification and further necessary action with a view to addressing the urgent need to reposition the bank for the effective discharge of its statutory mandate.
13. You are, by this letter, directed to hand over to most senior Deputy Governor, Dr. Sarah Alade who will act as Governor till the conclusion of the investigation into these far reaching breaches.
Please accept, as always, the assurances of my highest regards and esteem.
Anyim Pius Anyim, GCON
Secretary to the Government of the Federation
culled from 
http://dailypost.com.ng/2014/02/22/records-full-text-sanusi-lamido-sanusis-suspension-letter/

Monday, February 17, 2014

Cartoons and socio-political realities by Jimga-Jimoh Ganiyu


'The political cartoon has been one of the most powerful weapons through the ages ... dictators of the right and the left fear the political cartoonists more than they do the atomic bomb. No totalitarian government can afford to be ridiculed (DeSousa & Medhurst, 1982). ' 
Squatters on Rampage   , Jimga,  May 2011
see comments about this cartoon here
Editorial cartoons are single panel graphics that comment on political events and policy, and serve both to define the significant topics of political discourse and record them, thus creating a “snapshot” of the political climate in a given time period. Cartoons have been seen from the humorous perspective and generally have not been studied for their rhetoric capabilities (Vinson, 1967), however, the recent Jyllands-Posten’s Muhammad cartoons controversy in Denmark, which sparked violent protests around the world, speak to the continuing importance and potential power of cartoons as a medium of political communication.
Some scholars see cartoons as an important medium for the formation of public opinion on salient social issues (Agberia, 2001; Adekanmbi, 1997; Everette, 1974; Vinson, 1967). They are seen as "both opinion-molding and opinion-reflecting" (Caswell, 2004:14), and they provide subtle frameworks within which to examine the life and political processes of a nation (DeSousa & Medhurst, 1982). Cartoons are intended to transform otherwise complex and opaque social events and situations into quick and easily readable depictions that facilitate comprehension of the nature of social issues and events (Agberia, 2001:33). In doing so, they present society with visually palpable and hyper-ritualized depictions (selectively exaggerated portions of 'reality') that attempt to reveal the essence and meaning of social events.

Editorial cartoons, a genre of Graphic art, are the most extreme form of expression found in newspapers, as they are not bounded by norms of journalistic objectivity (Koetzle & Brunell, 1992; Lamb, 2004) or even the domain of objective reality that encompasses literary newspaper editorials. As such, they have historically been a source of satirical critique of the political status quo.
Defined as "a graphic presentation typically designed in a one-panel, non-continuing format to make an independent statement or observation on political events or social policy" (Edwards & Winkler; 1997: 306), the editorial (or political) cartoon often employs humor or irony to point out shortcomings or hypocrisies within the political system. While many studies (including this one) use the terms "political cartoon" and "editorial cartoon" interchangeably, some do differentiate between comic strips with political content, and single panel cartoons that make commentary on politics and policy. The latter would generally appear on the editorial page of a printed newspaper, and are the focus of this study. 
This posit features some of the cartoons i drew recently on the socio-political state of our dear Nation Nigeria.
National Youth Slauthering Council ( NYSC)
This cartoon satirizes the realities of the scheme NYSC National Youth Service Corp, that was intentionally formed in the 70s to foster unity among Nigerian youths after the civil war of 1967/70. It is ironical that the scheme has become a 'slauthering' council where our youths are being slaughtered like 'cow' in some part of the country. Despite the annual festival of blood by this particular region in Nigeria. The council still posts innocent graduates to these hostile environments. As a visual commentator  I have captured the NYSC as a terrible scheme, where the youths have to serve the nation with their heads. 
please see more comments here